Professor Lynne Bilston
NeuRA & UNSW, Australia
Presenting: MR imaging in biomechanics: What existing and emerging MRI methods are useful for biomechanists and how can you apply them to musculoskeletal, respiratory and neurological disorders?
From a background in biomechanical engineering, the focus of my research is on how the soft tissues in the human body respond to mechanical loading – both those loads which cause injury and those which are part of normal function. I develop novel methods for measuring biomechanical properties and behaviour of soft tissues in humans, particularly using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and rheometry. I apply these techniques to study mechanisms of traumatic injury, disorders of cerebrospinal fluid flow in the brain and spinal cord, and obstructive sleep apnoea.View abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to make structural and functional measurements in a wide variety of clinical and experimental contexts. However, it is also increasingly being used by biomechanists to make biomechanical measurements, including quantitative measurements of fluid flows, measurements of tissue mechanical properties, and joint and muscle kinematics. In this tutorial, you will learn about some of the current and emerging MRI techniques that can be used for biomechanics applications, their strengths and limitations, and examples of how they can be used for both research and clinical applications in a wide range of clinical disorders across the cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and respiratory domains. We will also briefly discuss the use of MRI for building and validating computational models.
Associate Professor Greg Sawicki
University of North Carolina
Presenting: Biologically-inspired concepts guiding lower-limb exoskeleton design
Dr. Gregory S. Sawicki is an Associate Professor in the Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He holds B.S. (’99) and M.S. (’01) degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Cornell University and the University of California-Davis, respectively. View more.
Dr. Sawicki completed his Ph.D. in Human Neuromechanics at the University of Michigan, Ann-Arbor (‘07) and was an NIH-funded Post-Doctoral Fellow in Integrative Biology at Brown University (‘07-‘09). Dr. Sawicki joined the faculty at NC State in summer 2009.
Dr. Sawicki directs the Human Physiology of Wearable Robotics (PoWeR) laboratory—where the goal is to combine tools from engineering, physiology and neuroscience to discover neuromechanical principles underpinning optimal locomotion performance and apply them to develop lower-limb robotic devices capable of improving both healthy and impaired human locomotion (e.g., for elite athletes, aging baby-boomers, post-stroke community ambulators).
By focusing on the human side of the human-machine interface, Sawicki and his group have begun to create a roadmap for the design of lower-limb robotic exoskeletons that are truly symbiotic---that is, wearable devices that work seamlessly in concert with the underlying physiological systems to facilitate the emergence of augmented human locomotion performance.
Biologically-inspired concepts guiding lower-limb exoskeleton design
This tutorial will focus on the basic science of human-machine interaction in the context of lower-limb exoskeletons that target the human ankle during locomotion. The goal is to motivate the importance of focusing on the human side of the human-machine interface in order to create a roadmap for the design of lower-limb robotic exoskeletons that are truly symbiotic---that is, wearable devices that can work seamlessly in concert with the underlying physiological systems to facilitate the emergence of augmented human locomotion performance.
First, there will be a live demonstration showcasing the function of an unpowered elastic ankle exoskeleton that can reduce the metabolic energy cost of human walking. Then, I will highlight the biologically-inspired design approach behind the successful device, drawing on a key energy savings mechanisms in locomotion: elastic energy storage and return. Next, with audience interaction, we will build a simple conceptual model of a biological muscle-tendon unit in parallel with a spring-loaded exoskeleton and consider what happens ‘under the skin’ to the mechanics, neural control and metabolic expenditure of individual muscles during locomotion with exoskeletons. Finally, I will introduce the idea of mechanical resonance as a guiding principle that can be used to inform modifications in the structure of the human foot-ankle system to achieve desired functional outcomes during locomotion. Using this idea, together we will brainstorm ways to tune the parameters of an ankle exoskeleton in order to address deficits in gait performance due to conditions that alter the stiffness of the plantarflexors (e.g., healthy aging).
Professor Francois Hug
Université de Nantes, assisted by Dominic Farris (University of Queensland) and Bart Bolsterlee (Neuroscience Research Australia)
Presenting: Ultrasound techniques for muscle-tendon imaging
François leads the laboratory “Movement, Interactions, Performance” and is Professor in Human Movement Sciences at the University of Nantes (France). He completed his PhD at the University of Aix-Marseille (France) in 2003. After 6 years’ experience as Associate Professor at the University of Nantes, François was a Principal Research Fellow at the CCRE Spine (The University of Queensland, Australia) from 2013 to 2015, before returning to France in 2016. François develops a research program at the nexus of biomechanics and neurophysiology to address gaps in our understanding of muscle coordination in health and disease. View more.
His recent achievements are particularly notable for the development of a method to estimate changes in individual muscle force using elastography. Coupled with neurophysiological approaches, the use of this novel experimental method has led to works that provide a deeper understanding of muscle coordination strategies in the presence of neuromuscular fatigue, acute and chronic pain. He has published over 120 refereed journal papers, supervised 5 PhD students to completion. He currently serves on the editorial board of Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology and is Academic Editor for PloS ONE.
Beyond the coordination between multiple effectors at different levels (e.g. between individual muscles, between joints), successful movements involve interactions between muscles and connective tissues (e.g. aponeurosis, tendons). In-vivo muscle biomechanical properties have been classically inferred from global methods (e.g. inverse dynamics, joint torque) that cannot isolate the behaviour of individual muscles or structures.
This tutorial will present an overview of the ultrasound methods that enable muscle and tendinous tissues to be imaged in real time. This tutorial will first introduce B-mode imaging and advanced methods to assess displacements within the muscle-tendon unit (semi-automated tracking, 3D freehand ultrasound). Second, the issue of probe positioning for 2-D measurements will be discussed through examples of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle. Future directions should combine displacements assessed using B-mode ultrasound with actual force applied on tissues. The third part of this tutorial will therefore present an ultrasound shear wave elastography technique that showed potential in estimation of both active and passive muscle force. Recent development of this elastography technique for tendon research will be presented.
This tutorial will include both lectures and demonstrations.
Professor Peter Hunter
University of Auckland
Presenting: Multiscale modeling in biomechanics
together with Associate Professor Thor Besier also from University of Auckland
Peter Hunter completed his Engineering and Masters of Engineering degrees at the University of Auckland before undertaking his DPhil (PhD) in Physiology at the University of Oxford where he researched finite element modeling of ventricular mechanics. View more.
Since then his major research interests have been around modelling various aspects of the human body using specially developed computational algorithms and an anatomically and biophysically based approach which incorporates the detailed anatomical and microstructural measurements and material properties into the continuum models.
Peter has received numerous accolades for his work and in 2010 was appointed to the NZ Order of Merit. In 2009, he was awarded the illustrious Rutherford Medal, New Zealand's top science award, as well as the KEA World Class NZ award in Research, Science, Technology and Academia.
As recent Co-Chair of the Physiome Committee of the International Union of Physiological Sciences, Peter is helping to lead the world in the use of computational methods for understanding the integrated physiological function of the body in terms of the structure and function of tissues, cells and proteins.
Alongside his role as Director of the Auckland Bioengineering Institute and Professor of Engineering Science at the University of Auckland, Peter is also Director of Computational Physiology at Oxford University, and Director of the Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence (MedTech CoRE) hosted by the University of Auckland. He also holds honorary or visiting Professorships at a number of universities around the world.
Peter is also on the scientific advisory boards of a number of research institutes in Europe, the US and the Asia-Pacific region.
Multiscale modeling in biomechanics
A long term goal for research in biomechanics is to be able to interpret measurements of biomechanical function from multiple physiological scales, including whole body kinematics and kinetics as well as molecular level function through, for example, blood biomarkers or tissue biopsies. This requires multi-scale modeling to relate the molecular function of muscles and other body organs to the integrated performance of the musculo-skeletal system. In many cases it also requires the models to be as specific to the individual as possible.
The Physiome Project is an international effort to establish an open science framework for biophysically-based multiscale modeling, including the development of standards, tools, and databases. The standards include CellML (www.cellml.org), SED-ML (www.sed-ml.org) and FieldML (www.fieldml.org). The software includes OpenCOR (www.opencor.ws), OpenCMISS (www.opencmiss.org) and MAP-Client (https://map-client.readthedocs.io/en/latest/). A database of models is available at models.cellml.org/cellml.
In this tutorial we will demonstrate the use of the Physiome Project framework for interpreting physiological measurements of the musculo-skeletal system and show participants how to use the freely available tools OpenCOR, OpenCMISS and MAP-Client and their associated databases. We will also talk briefly about the future directions of the Physiome Project in relation to the musculo-skeletal system.
As is customary with ISB Congress’s, ISB 2017 will host a day of ISB workshops on cutting edge topics presented by world leading researchers. Each workshop will run for approximately 2 hours, with two in parallel session in the morning and afternoon. They will be followed by the ISB Opening ceremony, the 2017 Wartenweiller Lecture and the Congress Welcome reception.